Norwegian Refugee Council Return Intention Survey in Kakuma Refugee Camps Consultancy in Kenya

Aug 9, 2017

Norwegian Refugee Council
 
Terms of Reference

Consultancy: Return Intention Survey in Kakuma Refugee Camps
 
Ref. No: 3528154432

1. Background: The goal of refugee protection is to find durable solutions that will enable refugees to live in safety and rebuild their lives with three durable solutions worldwide – voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement. 

 
In Kenya there are currently 486,000 registered refugees and asylum seekers from more than 24 countries [UNHCR, ‘Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Kenya – Statistical Summary as of 30 June 2017’, July 2017. Available HERE].

The vast majority of refugees in Kenya have spent considerable years in displacement and many refugee households have children born and raised in Kenya. 

The Kenya authorities maintain an encampment policy related to refugees and as such the vast majority of refugees are located in formal camp complexes of Dadaab (244,000) and Kakuma (180,000) with limited freedom of movement [Ibid].

n this context it is important to analyse options for durable solutions and meaningfully engage with refugees and ensure that their voices are heard in what they see as their future options. 

Durable solutions analysis is also important for short to medium term planning in refugee settings and for humanitarian and development programmes.

Historically voluntary repatriation has benefited the highest number of refugees and is often the most desirable solution for refugees. 

However, for many refugees in Kenya, the decision to return is not an easy one with the situation often having not improved in their countries of origin and in many cases deteriorated. 

The threat of persecution and conflict along with lack of access to basic services is still potentially preventing many refugees from being able to return home safely and conditions not conducive to safe, dignified and sustainable returns. 

It is therefore important to understand the push and pull factors that are affecting return considerations and intentions including the availability of other durable solutions – local integration and resettlement – to plan and provide protection to refugees as well as advocate for solutions.

In 2017 Somali refugees form the largest number of refugees in Kenya and currently make up 60% of the overall population of registered refugees and asylum seekers in the country. 

In November 2013 a Tripartite Agreement was signed between the Federal Government of Somalia, Government of Kenya (GoK) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) outlining a framework for the voluntary repatriation of Somali refugees to Somalia. 

As of 14 July 2017 close to 70,000 Somali refugees have been supported to return to Somalia through the voluntary repatriation process, the vast majority (98%) from Dadaab refugee camps [UNHCR, ‘Weekly Update – Voluntary Repatriation of Somali Refugees From Kenya’, 14 July 2017. Available HERE].

In an UNHCR-led population fixing exercise in Dadaab in August 2016

74% of Somali refugees stated that they did not want to return yet largely fearing insecurity at home [UNHCR, Final Report – Refugee Population Fixing Exercise: Dadaab Refugee Camps, August 2016].

The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) together with REACH / Impact Initiatives and the Refugee Consortium of Kenya (RCK) in May and June 2017 conducted household level surveys in Dadaab related to movement and intentions. 

The research found that amongst Somali refugees in Dadaab only 22% of households surveyed stated that were “certain” or “very likely” to return [NRC, RCK and REACH, ‘Dadaab Intentions and Movement Dashboard’, June 2017 (forthcoming)].

This is against 65% of households who revealed that they “would not” or were “unlikely” to return. 

The three main reasons given for not considering return were conflict (72%), drought (41%) and lack of livelihoods (40%) in Somalia.  

The three main reasons for those considering return were lack of livelihoods in Dadaab (52%), potential closure of the camp (46%) and lack of access to services in Dadaab (24%).

Currently in Kakuma Somalia refugees wishing to return have also been supported through voluntary repatriation though on a much smaller scale than Dadaab (1,730 returnees since 2016) [UNHCR, ‘Weekly Update – Voluntary Repatriation of Somali Refugees From Kenya’, 14 July 2017. Available HERE]. 

Refugees from other countries are supported to return on a case by case basis by UNHCR. 

In Kakuma no return intention surveys have been conducted in recent years including not just for Somalia refugees but also refugees from South Sudan and other countries. 

Unlike Dadaab, the population of Kakuma is much more diverse with 56% of registered refugees and asylum seekers from South Sudan (56%), followed by Somalia (21%), Democratic Republic of Congo (6%), Ethiopia (6%) and Sudan (6%). 

NRC together with the UNHCR therefore wishes to conduct a return intention survey in Kakuma to get an understanding of future return intentions and factors impacting return considerations within the context of broader durable solutions analysis.

Kakuma Refugee Camp: Kakuma refugee camp is located in outskirts of Kakuma town, which is the headquarters for Turkana West Sub-County of Turkana County. 

Kakuma camp has a population of 179,000 registered refugees and asylum seekers as June 2017 [UNHCR,  ‘Refugees  and  Asylum  Seekers  in  Kenya  –  Statistical  Summary  as  of  30  June  2017’,  July  2017. Available  HERE ]. 

Kakuma refugee camp has four administrative units (Kakuma 1, Kakuma 2, Kakuma 3 and Kakuma 4). 

In January 2016, UNHCR and Refugee Affairs Secretariat (RAS) established an additional settlement in Kalobeyei about 25km from Kakuma town to host new arrivals and relocatees from Dadaab as well as to decongest the already overcrowded Kakuma refugee camp. 

UNHCR and RAS manage the current voluntary repatriation process in Kakuma refugee camp. 

For Somali refugees NRC provides information on the areas of return at the Return Help Desks and through group information sessions. 

NRC also provides Mine Risk Awareness trainings to those who are returning to Somalia. 

The International Rescue Committee (IRC) provide medical screening to those who are travelling and the World Food Program (WFP) manages the flights.

2. Objective of the research and survey (assessment)

In 2017, NRC intends to conduct a joint return intention survey in Kakuma camps with the objective to gain an understanding of refugees’ future return intentions and factors influencing return considerations through a durable solutions lens. 

The survey will be done jointly with UNHCR, RAS and IRC who are the main actors in the voluntary repatriation process for Somalia refugees in Kakuma. The information and the data collected during the survey will serve the following purposes:

Understanding of future return intentions amongst the main refugee groups in Kakuma (South Sudan, Somalia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Sudan and Burundi) and the main considerations taking into account by refugees when contemplating return.

Understanding of return considerations  (push factors)  and factors that are influencing refugees’ intention to stay in Kakuma (pull factors) including access to services, assistance, livelihoods and economic opportunities and freedom of movement.

Understanding the main needs identified by refugees during any voluntary repatriation process and any challenges that Somali refugees face with the ongoing voluntary repatriation process.

3. Scope of work and methodology

The consultant(s) will be responsible for the following main tasks to support NRC to meet the assessment objectives:

Design and implement a comprehensive fieldwork plan to collect, analyse and interpret information.

Identify and engage appropriate stakeholders in the methodology and tool design, fieldwork and analysis and validation of the research.

Conduct semi-structured interviews and/or focus-group discussions (FGDs) with key stakeholders within the target areas considering age, gender and diversity mainstreaming (AGDM) including representative sample of different main refugee groups in Kakuma.

Review of applicable international and national legal frameworks in relation to return and review of any written policy framework in relation voluntary repatriation.

Conduct interviews with randomly sample participants to validate analysis and capture case studies.

Conduct comprehensive analysis of the compiled data and present initial analysis to NRC and other stakeholders before finalisation.

Compilation of a comprehensive/detailed survey report with key recommendations (maximum length 30 pages plus annexes).

The survey will use mixed methods approach where qualitative and quantitative data will be collected as follows:

Desk study: Review of applicable international and national legal frameworks in relation to return and review of any written policy framework in relation voluntary repatriation

Household survey: In collaboration with M&E Kakuma Team develop a household survey tool and administer the tool in Kakuma

Key informant interviews (KIIs): Series of KIIs in refugee camps with camp management (UNHCR and

RAS), humanitarian and protection actors and community leaders.

Focus group discussions (FGDs): Structured FGDs held with refugees in the camp. Number, composition and structure of FGDs to be determined by consultant with ICLA team and the VolRep actors.

Semi-structured interviews:  Follow up semi-structured interviews with randomly sampled refugees to gather further qualitative analysis and case studies.

This survey will adopt a two stage sampling design. 

The four Kakuma refugee camps will be treated as clusters (average number of sampling units – persons or households – in cluster) and the Kalobeyei will also be treated as 1 cluster on its own. 

The sampled camps will be drawn with a stratified probability proportional to size sampling methodology from enumeration areas (all camps).

In order to meet the objectives of this survey, the sample will be designed to have XX households from XX clusters (zones/blocks) spread across the study area, with XX clusters in Kalobeyei and YY clusters / zones in the refugee camps. 

Samples will then be selected using simple random sampling (SRS) independently in each sampled block per zone.

The consultant(s) will apply informed and voluntary consent, confidentiality and gender representativeness during the survey. 

Where possible the team will use both male and female enumerators during data collection to ensure the differentiated gender issues are captured.

4. Outputs and Deliverables

The following specific outputs are envisaged under the consultancy:

RIS plan (inception plan, inception report): The consultant before going into the data collection exercise will prepare the plan. 

It should detail the consultant’s understanding of what is being studied and why, showing how each survey objective will be answered by way of proposed methods, proposed sources of data, sampling methodology, and data collection procedures. 

The baseline plan will include a proposed schedule of tasks, activities and deliverables. 

The survey plan will be reviewed and amended, if necessary, with the consultant and NRC to ensure that they share the same understanding about the survey and clarify any misunderstanding at the outset.

Draft RIS report: The consultant, ICLA team and other key stakeholders in the exercise will review the draft RIS report to ensure that it follows the terms of reference, addresses all of the survey questions, and follows any agreed upon formats. 

Ensure in the timeline that there is sufficient time to develop and discuss feedback. This is the chance to correct any omissions.

Final RIS report: The final report can only be agreed upon once the draft has fully been circulated, read and inputs considered. 

If there are several formats required, for instance a summary report or a Power Point presentation with detailed notes in addition to the complete report, the various versions should be noted.

5. Survey timeframe

It is anticipated that the consultant will be hired for 22 working days and the final report due by 1 October 2017.

6. Annexes

Annexes will be used to provide additional detail about the survey background and requirements to facilitate the work of consultant. 

Some examples include:

Key stakeholders and partners: A list of key stakeholders and other partners who should be consulted, together with an indication of their affiliation and relevance for the survey and their contact information.

Documents to be consulted: A list of important documents and other information sources that the consultant should read at the outset of the survey and before finalizing the study design and the comprehensive inception report. 

This should be limited to the critical information that the consultant needs.

Required format for the RIS Plan: This will include a RIS matrix (see below). 

It details survey questions that the baseline study will answer, data sources, data collection, analysis tools or methods appropriate for each data source, and the standard or measure by which each question will be studied.

RIS Matrix
  • RIS criteria
  • Key questions
  • Specific sub questions
  • Data Sources
  • Data Collection Methods and Tools
  • Methods for data analysis
Required format for the RIS report: The consultant will generate one report. 

The report should clearly present the background information, limitations, detailed methodology, findings, analysis, discussions, conclusions and recommendations, and any required annexes.

7. NRC Responsibilities
  • Facilitate the transportation of the consultant(s), maximum two persons from Nairobi to Kakuma and back, preferable on the ECHO flight or through Lodwar using commercial flights (The consultant/s will be required to make personal travel arrangements to reach Wilson airport or JKIA from their homes).
  • Hire and recruit the enumerators and pay them.
  • Facilitate transport to camps (Kakuma and Kalobeyei) and back to NRC field office.
  • Provide accommodation if available within NRC compound, or make arrangements within other agencies compounds or local guest houses.
  • Provide meals – breakfast, lunch, dinner (no arrangement for special diet/food).
  • Provide available background reading materials, reference materials related to the survey.
  • Review the draft report and makes comments to be used in preparation for the final report.
8. Qualification of the consultant/s

A registered company / consultant firm / organisation as per the Government of Kenya statutes

The lead consultant must have extensive experience in refugee protection and humanitarian settings.

The lead consultant and any support consultants must have a minimum the following:
  • Bachelor degrees in Law from recognised university.
  • 5 years or more experience in conducting legal research including international and national legal concepts; collating legal data, case information and presenting legal analysis or similar undertakings
  • Previous awareness of the Kenyan context and domestic legal framework applicable in the country is an advantage.
  • Previous experience and knowledge of NRC and the ICLA programme is an advantage.
NB: The lead consultant and one of the support consultants named in the EOI  documents must ensure that they will be available to conduct the consultancy if they are selected (no replacement will be allowed).

How to Apply

Visit www.nrc.no to appy online

Search criteria: 
  • Location: Kenya
  • Industry: Emergency Relief
  • Special field: Information, Counselling & Legal Assistance
  • Role: Consultant
Deadline for application: 18/08/2017




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